BioScience Trends. 2011;5(4):173-181. (DOI: 10.5582/bst.2011.v5.4.173)
Valsartan attenuated oxidative stress, decreased MCP-1 and TGF-β1 expression in glomerular mesangial and epithelial cells induced by high-glucose levels.
Jiao B, Wang YS, Cheng YN, Gao JJ, Zhang QZ
Our previous studies revealed that valsartan, an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker, exhibited renoprotective effects through decreasing urine protein excretion levels due to improving glomerular permeability in rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms in perspectives of oxidative stress, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expressions in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) and glomerular epithelial cells (GECs) since their roles are well-established in the development and progression of DN. High-glucose levels significantly increased oxidative stress in GMCs and GECs, as evidenced by enhanced generation of reactive reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced levels of glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA). Treatment with valsartan significantly restored the levels of those oxidative stress relevant molecules. Furthermore, valsartan obviously diminished the expression of proinflammatory cytokine MCP-1 in GMCs and GECs induced by high-glucose levels both at mRNA and protein levels, as determined by real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and ELISA. In addition, the increased expressions of TGF-β1 mRNA and protein induced by high-glucose level were also abrogated by valsartan treatment in GMCs, as evaluated by real-time PCR and ELISA. These results suggest that the renoprotective effects of valsartan may be related to its potential in decreasing oxidative stress and the expressions of MCP-1 and TGF-β1 in GMCs and GECs.