BioScience Trends. 2021;15(5):266-275. (DOI: 10.5582/bst.2021.01342)

Community-acquired pneumonia: Trends in and research on drug resistance and advances in new antibiotics

Shen LY, Wang LX, Liu C, Shi SM, Takahashi T, Wang TJ


Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to infectious inflammation of the lung parenchyma developing outside of a hospital. CAP has quite a high mortality and morbidity rate worldwide, and especially among elderly patients. The increasing burden of CAP is due to antibiotic resistance, the growth of the elderly population, and underlying comorbidities. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common bacterial pathogen causing CAP, but multi-drug resistance bacteria and potential pathogens have increased the difficulty and challenges of managing CAP. Although preventive measures, diagnostic techniques, and treatment strategies are constantly advancing and improving, the susceptibility of multi-drug resistant pathogens, such as including Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has not improved significantly in recent decades, thus highlighting the importance and necessity of developing new antibiotics for the treatment of CAP. New antimicrobials have been approved over the past few years that will expand treatment options for CAP, and especially for patients with potential comorbidities. This situation also offers the chance to reduce the abuse of antibiotics, their toxicities, and their adverse reactions and to provide effective personalized antibiotic treatment.

KEYWORDS: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), antimicrobial resistance, epidemiology, treatment guidelines

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