BioScience Trends. 2017;11(4):450-459. (DOI: 10.5582/bst.2017.01119)
Poly(U) and CpG ameliorate the unbalanced T cell immunity and pneumonia of mice with RSV vaccine-enhanced disease.
Jia R, Lu L, Liang X, Sun Z, Tan L, Xu M, Su L, Xu J
Respiratory Syncycial Virus (RSV) is the most important pathogen responsible for children's severe lower respiratory tract infection. So far no RSV vaccine has yet been authorized for clinical use. The main impediment that blocked development of RSV vaccine is that inactivated RSV vaccine could cause RSV vaccine-enhanced disease (RVED). The mechanism of RVED remains unclear. Recently some researchers found that insufficient activation of innate immunity, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), might be associated with the onset of RVED. Based on the above findings, this research was conducted to further study the mechanism of RVED. We first vaccinated mice with formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FIRSV) and then exposed them to RSV to establish a RVED mouse model. Consequently, we found that mice previously inoculated with FIRSV showed obvious weight loss and extensive pneumonia, as well as T helper 2 cells (Th2)-biased immunity and suppressed CD8+T cell immunity after viral exposure, suggesting that we have successfully established a RVED mouse model. Then based on this model, we further added Poly(U) (TLR7/8 agonist) and CpG (TLR9 agonist) in FIRSV to see if RVED could be ameliorated. As a result, mice inoculated with FIRSV supplemented with Poly(U) and CpG had a much relieved weight loss and pneumonia, as well as suppressed Th2-biased immunity and strengthened CD8+T cell function. Thus, the insufficient stimulation of TLR7/8 and (or) TLR9 might play a role in the development of RVED, which could provide evidence for using TLR agonists as vaccine adjuvants to confer a protective immune response against RSV.